• Proseek Multiplex CVD II

    Towards a better understanding of cardiovascular disease and personalized medicine

    The CVD II panel is a high-throughput, multiplex immunoassay enabling analysis of 92 CVD-related protein biomarkers across 96 samples simultaneously. This high level of multiplexing is achieved without any compromise on data quality, thanks to our proprietary Proximity Extension Assay (PEA) technology.CVD Icon Single

    This panel contains known human cardiovascular and inflammatory markers as well as some exploratory human proteins with great potential as new CVD markers, which were carefully selected in collaboration with leading experts in the field. Each analyte in the panel has been assessed in terms of sample material, specificity, precision, sensitivity, dynamic range, matrix effects and interference. The assays on this panel have been selected to focus on low-abundance proteins, and 1 µL of undiluted sample is used to measure the 92 biomarkers, as with previous panels.

    An overview of how the 92 biomarker assays in the panel are classified according to Biological Process, Disease Area, Tissue Expression and Protein Class (based on widely used public-access bioinformatic databases, including Uniprot, Human Protein Atlas, Gene Ontology (GO) and DisGeNET) can be seen in the charts below. These charts are interactive: click on a chart-bar or pie-segment to see the list of biomarkers in that classification. Each item in the list links to the detailed biomarker page with validation data.

    Biological Process

    Disease Area

    Tissue Expression

    Protein Class

    Note: Studies can be complemented with 92 additional established and exploratory CVD biomarkers using Proseek Multiplex CVD III. In this panel, assays are focused on high-abundance proteins.


    Overview: Dynamic ranges of the two CVD panels.

    A comprehensive list of all protein biomarkers that can be measured using the currently available Proseek Multiplex panels can be seen on the biomarker library page.

    Note: A printable list of the biomarker assays available in this panel, as well as a full data validation document, can be downloaded from our Document download center >>

    If you prefer not to run the assay yourself, let our experts here at Olink do this for you via our Proseek Multiplex Analysis Service.

    The biomarker pages linked to below include calibrator curves that show the performance of each assay with the estimated sensitivity and dynamic range parameters indicated. These curves are generated during the assay validation process using recombinant antigens, with data presented as Normalized Protein eXpression (NPX) values plotted against protein concentration (in pg/mL). Please note that when analyzing biological samples the data generated will be given in the form of relative quantification (NPX values) and cannot be converted to absolute protein concentrations. For more info about NPX measurements, please view the FAQ.

  • Search all our biomarkers

      Biomarkers in Proseek Multiplex CVD II

      • 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, mitochondrial (DECR1)

        This protein is an auxiliary enzyme in beta-oxidation. It participates in the metabolism of unsaturated fatty enoyl-CoA esters that have double bonds in both even- and odd-numbe...

      • A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 13 (ADAM-TS13)

        ADAM-TS 13 (also known as von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease, VWFCP) is a is a zinc-containing metalloprotease that cleaves vWF multimers in plasma and so controls vWF-medi...

      • ADM (ADM)

        Adrenomedullin is cleaved into two peptides; adrenomedullin (AM) and proadrenomedullin N-20 peptide (PAMP). AM and PAMP are potent hypotensive and vasodilatator agents. Both pep...

      • Agouti-related protein (AGRP)

        Agouti-related protein also called Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron.

      • Alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA)

        IDUA is an enzyme found in the lysosomes of cells, which catalyses the hydrolysis of unsulfated alpha-L-iduronosidic linkages in dermatan sulfate.

      • Angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1)

        ANG-1 is a member of the vascular growth factor family, and via its interactions with the TEK/TIE2 receptor, plays an important role in the regulation of angiogenesis.During emb...

      • Angiopoietin-1 receptor (TIE2)

        Angiopoietin/Tie receptor signaling cascades are involved in fundamental angiogenesis events including vascular stabilization and remodeling, as well as recruitment of pericytes...

      • Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)

        ACE2 is a carboxypeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the nonapeptide angiotensin 1-9, or the conversion of angiotensin II to the vasodilator peptide angi...

      • Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6)

        BMP-6 is a secreted signaling protein and a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) superfamily. As one of several bone morphogenic proteins, it can induce ectopic ...

      • Brother of CDO (BOC)

        Component of a cell-surface receptor complex that mediates cell-cell interactions between muscle precursor cells. Promotes differentiation of myogenic cells.

      • C-C motif chemokine 17 (CCL17)

        CCL17 (also known as thymus and activation regulated chemokine, TARC) is s a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The protein is expressed constitutively in thym...

      • C-C motif chemokine 3 (CCL3)

        CCL3, also known as Macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?), is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recru...

      • C-X-C motif chemokine 1 (CXCL1)

        CXCL1 is a chemokine that upon binding to its receptor CXCR2 elicits chemotactic activity on neutrophils and among others is involved in inflammatory response. CXCL1 has been de...

      • Carbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial (CA5A)

        CA5A is a zince-dependent mitochondrial enzyme involved in the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Mutations in the CA5A gene can result in hyperammonemia, an autosomal rece...

      • Carcinoembryonic antigenrelated cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8)

        CEACAM8 (also known as Cluster of Differentiation 66b, CD66b) finctions in cell adhesion, cell migration, and pathogen binding. It is expressed exclusively on granulocytes and i...

      • Cathepsin L1 (CTSL1)

        Cathepsin L has been implicated in several pathologic processes, including myofibril necrosis in myopathies and in myocardial ischemia, and in the renal tubular response to prot...

      • CD40 ligand (CD40-L)

        Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is contained in platelet granules and thus its presence in the blood is a marker of platelet activation. By interacting with CD40, which is found on...

      • Chymotrypsin C (CTRC)

        CTRC (also known as Caldecrin) is a member of the peptidase S1 family of proteins. It regulates activation and degradation of trypsinogens and procarboxypeptidases,targeting spe...

      • Decorin (DCN)

        Decorin is a proteoglycan belonging to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family. It is a component of connective tissu and binds to type I collagen fibrils. The main fu...

      • Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)

        Dkks are implicated in bone formation and bone disease, cancer and Alzheimer disease. Elevated levels of DKK1 in bone marrow, plasma and peripheral blood is associated with the ...

      • Fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal (FABP2)

        Fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal (also called Fatty acid-binding protein 2) is one of a family of >15 intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins that participate in the upt...

      • Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)

        Stimulates glucose uptake in differentiated adipocytes via the induction of glucose transporter SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression (but not SLC2A4/GLUT4 expression). Activity requires the ...

      • Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23)

        FGF-23 is a growth factor secreted by osteocytes in response to calcitriol (the hormonally active form of vitamin D), and it is involved in the regulation of phosphate concentra...

      • Follistatin (FS)

        Follistatin, also known as activin binding protein, is an autocrine glycoprotein expressed in nearly all tissues. In the blood known to be involved in the inflammatory response...

      • Galectin-9 (Gal-9)

        Gal-9 is an S-type lectin. It is strongly overexpressed in Hodgkin's disease tissue and may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease and/or its consistently associated im...

      • Gastric intrinsic factor (GIF)

        Gastric intrinsic factor is a secreted glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. It is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. Deff...

      • Gastrotropin (GT)

        Gastrotopin is an ileal protein which stimulates gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion. It is able to bind to bile salts and bilirubins. Isoform?2 of this protein?is essential f...

      • Growth hormone (GH)

        Growth hormone (GH or HGH), also known as somatotropin or somatropin, is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals...

      • Growth/differentiation factor 2 (GDF-2)

        GDF-2 is a glycosilated cytokine that belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. Its functions include maintaining neurotransmitter responsiveness of embryonic ...

      • Heat shock 27 kDa protein (HSP 27)

        HSP 27 is thought to exert an important role in the atherosclerotic process. Serum HSP 27 concentrations appear to be a biomarker of myocardial ischemia.

      • Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1)

        Heme oxygenase, an essential enzyme in heme catabolism. It cleaves the heme ring to form biliverdin, which is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. The pr...

      • Hydroxyacid oxidase 1 (HAOX1)

        HAO1 is a peroxisomal enzyme that is expressed primarily in liver and pancreas. It is one of three related proteins that exhibit 2-hydroxyacid oxidase activity. HAO1 is most act...

      • Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL-1ra)

        IL-1ra is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family, and is a natural inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory effect of IL1b. This protein inhibits the activities of interleukin 1...

      • Interleukin-1 receptor-like 2 (IL1RL2)

        IL1RL2 is a receptor for interleukin-36, and a member of the interleukin 1 receptor family. After binding to interleukin-36 associates with the co-receptor IL1RAP to form the in...

      • Interleukin-17D (IL-17D)

        IL-17D is a cytokine, that induces expression of IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF from endothelial cells.

      • Interleukin-18 (IL-18)

        IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that in combination with IL-12 induces cell-mediated immunity in the presence of microbial infection, which leads to the release of IFN-gamm...

      • Interleukin-27 (IL-27)

        Cytokine with pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, that can regulate T-helper cell development, suppress T-cell proliferation, stimulate cytotoxic T-cell activity, induce isot...

      • Interleukin-4 receptor subunit alpha (IL-4RA)

        This is a transmembrane receptor for both interleukin 4 and interleukin 13, which regulate IgE production and, chemokine and mucus production at sites of allergic inflammation. ...

      • Interleukin-6 (IL6)

        Cytokine with a wide variety of biological functions. It is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. Plays an essential role in the final differentiation of B-cells into Ig...

      • Kidney Injury Molecule (KIM1)

        May play a role in T-helper cell development and the regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. Receptor for TIMD4 (By similarity). May play a role in kidney injury and repair....

      • Lactoylglutathione lyase (GLO1)

        GLO1 (also known as glyoxalase I) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of hemimercaptal to S-lactoylglutathione. This is the first step in the critical glyoxalase system t...

      • Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1)

        Receptor that mediates the recognition, internalization and degradation of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) by vascular endothelial cells. OxLDL is a marker ...

      • Leptin (LEP)

        Leptin is a adipose cell-derived hormone that regulates energy balance by inhibiting hunger. In obesity, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to ...

      • Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)

        LPL lipase functions in the hydrolysis of triglycerides of circulating chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). It is secreted from parenchymal cells as a glycosyl...

      • Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-b (IgG Fc receptor II-b)

        IgG Fc receptor II-b is a?protein?that, in humans, is encoded by the?FCGR2B?gene. FCGR2B (CD32B) is a low affinity receptor for?Immunoglobulin G?(IgG). Mutation in the gene in h...

      • Lymphotactin (XCL1)

        Lymphotactin (also known as C motif chemokine 1) is a cytokine of the XC chemokine family. The highest levels of lymphotactin are found in spleen, thymus, intestine and peripher...

      • Macrophage receptor MARCO (MARCO)

        MARCO is a pattern recognition receptor protein and a member of the class A scavenger receptor family. It forms part of the innate antimicrobial immune system and binds Gram-pos...

      • Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12)

        MMP-12 may be involved in tissue injury and remodeling. Has significant elastolytic activity.

      • Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7)

        Extracellular matrix-degrading proteinases are upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions and can contribute to subsequent pathological events. Can be regarded as risk factors, and ...

      • Melusin (ITGB1BP2)

        Melusin may play a role during maturation and/or organization of muscles cells. Melusin levels are strongly reduced in the failing heart of aortic stenosis human patients and th...

      • Natriuretic peptides B (BNP)

        BNP is secreted by the ventricles of the heart in response to excessive stretching of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). The main clinical utility of either BNP or NT-BNP is t...

      • NF-kappa-B essential modulator (NEMO)

        NEMO (IKK-?) is the regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of I?B kinase (IKK) complex, which activates NF-?B resulting in activation of genes involved in inflammation, immunity, c...

      • Osteoclast-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor (hOSCAR)

        hOSCAR (also known as Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor 3) is a leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) protein family member, and plays an important bone-specific function in osteocla...

      • P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1)

        P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1, or PSGL-1, is expressed on all white blood cells and plays an important role in the recruitment of white blood cells into inflamed tissue.

      • Pappalysin-1 (PAPPA)

        Pappalysin-1, is a high molecular weight, zinc-binding metalloproteinase that is associated with vulnerable plaque and may predict cardiovascular disease and mortality.

      • Pentraxin-related protein PTX3 (PTX3)

        Pentraxin-related protein PTX3 is a rapid marker for primary local activation of innate immunity and inflammation, it behaves as an acute phase response protein, as the blood le...

      • Placenta growth factor (PGF)

        Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1...

      • Platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF subunit B)

        PDGF subunit B is required for normal proliferation and recruitment of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in the central nervous system, skin, lung, heart and placenta, ...

      • Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1)

        PARP-1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism, and therefore pl...

      • Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIgR)

        PlgR is a receptor that binds polymeric IgA and IgM at the basolateral surface of epithelial cells. The complex is then transported across the cell to be secreted at the apical ...

      • Pro-interleukin-16 (IL16)

        Pro-Interleukin-16 is cleaved to form Interleukin-16, which is a pleiotropic cytokine that functions as a chemoattractant, a modulator of T cell activation, and an inhibitor of ...

      • Programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2)

        PD-1 ligand 2 is a trans-membrane protein that is essential for T-cell proliferation and IFNG production. This function involves a costimulatory signal that is Programmed cell d...

      • Proheparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF)

        Proheparin-binding EGF-like growth factor is cleaved into heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. HBEGF is an epidermal growth factor produced by monocytes and macrophages that ...

      • Prolargin (PRELP)

        PRELP is a leucine-rich repeat, extracellular matrix protein that is expressed in connective tissue. Its principle function is to anchor basement membranes to the underlying co...

      • Prostasin (PRSS8 )

        PRSS8 (also known as Channel-activating protease 1) is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This enzyme is highly expressed in prostate epithelia and is found in ...

      • Protein AMBP (AMBP)

        AMBP is a precursor protein that is cleaved into three sub-proteins: Alpha-1-microglobulin (Protein HC), Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor light chain (ITI-LC) and Trypstatin. Prote...

      • Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 (TGM2)

        TGM2 (also known as Tissue transglutaminase) is a calcium-dependent protein-glutamine ?-glutamyltransferase that catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of p...

      • Proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1)

        PAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in the regulation of thrombotic response. Proteolytic cleavage leads to the activation of the receptor. May play a role in platelet...

      • Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (SRC)

        SRC is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase protein which is activated following engagement of many different classes of cellular receptors including immune response receptors...

      • Receptor for advanced glycosylation end products (RAGE)

        Receptor for AGEs (RAGE) - is a multiligand-binding member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Acts as a mediator of acute and chronic vascular inflammation such as atherosclerosis.

      • Renin (REN)

        Renin is a highly specific endopeptidase which generates angiotensin I from angiotensinogen in the plasma, initiating a cascade of reactions that produce an elevation of blood p...

      • Serine protease 27 (PRSS27)

        Serine protease 27 is a member of the peptidase S1 family and exhibits serine-type endopeptidase activity.

      • Serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 (STK4)

        STK4 is a stress-activated, pro-apoptotic kinase which, following caspase-cleavage, enters the nucleus and induces chromatin condensation. This process is then followed by inter...

      • Serpin A12 (SERPINA12)

        SERPINA12 (commonly referred to as Vaspin) is a member of the Serpin protein superfamily, which comprises a large number of structurally similar protease inhibitors. Serpin A12...

      • SLAM family member 5 (CD84)

        SLAM family member 5 (also known as CD84) is an adhesion receptor that facilitates interactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells. It also increases the proliferative re...

      • SLAM family member 7 (SLAMF7)

        SLAMF/ si a receptor. May play a role in lymphocyte adhesion. Isoform 1 mediates NK cell activation,wheras isoform 3 does not.

      • Sortilin (SORT1)

        SORT1 is a trans-Golgi network transmembrane receptor, which binds a number of unrelated ligands that participate in a broad range of cellular processes.Its major roles are as a...

      • Spondin-2 (SPON2)

        SPON2 (also known as DIL-1 and Mindin) is a cell adhesion protein that promotes adhesion and outgrowth of hippocampal embryonic neurons. It binds directly to bacteria and functi...

      • Stem cell factor (SCF)

        SCF (c-Kit-ligand) is a cytokine that plays an important role in hematopoiesis, spermatogenesis, and melanogenesis. SCF is up-regulated under inflammatory conditions and by stim...

      • Superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SOD2)

        SOD2 is a mitochondrial matrix protein and a member of the iron/manganese superoxide dismutase family. It forms a homotetramer that binds one manganese ion per subunit, and tran...

      • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD4 (CD4)

        CD4 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, functioning as an accessory protein for MHC class-II antigen/T-cell receptor interactions. It ...

      • Thrombomodulin TM

        Thrombomodulin reduces blood coagulation by converting thrombin to an anticoagulant enzyme from a procoagulant enzyme. Thrombomodulin is mainly synthesized by vascular endotheli...

      • Thrombopoietin (THPO)

        THPO (also known as Megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor) is a is a glycoprotein hormone produced by the liver and kidney. This cytokine affects the proliferation and maturat...

      • Thrombospondin-2 (THBS2)

        THSB2 is a disulfide-linked homotrimeric adhesive glycoprotein that mediates cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions.This protein has also been reported to function as a po...

      • Tissue factor (TF)

        Tissue factor (TF) is the cell surface receptor for the serine protease factor VIIa. The best known function of TF is its role in blood coagulation. The complex of TF with facto...

      • TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2)

        TRAIL-R2 is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily and contains an intracellular death domain. This receptor can be activated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis induci...

      • Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10A (TNFRSF10A)

        Receptor for the cytotoxic ligand TNFSF10/TRAIL. The adapter molecule FADD recruits caspase-8 to the activated receptor. The resulting death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) pe...

      • Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11A (TNFRSF11A)

        TNFRSF11A (also known as RANK) is a trans-membrane receptor and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) molecular sub-family. It is involved in the regulation of i...

      • Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B (TNFRSF13B)

        TNFRSF13B is a lymphocyte-specific member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. It binds to two members of the TNF family, BAFF and APRIL, activating several ...

      • Tyrosine-protein kinase Mer (MERTK)

        MERTK is a receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to several ligands including LGALS3, TUB, TULP1 or GAS6. ...

      • V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein 2 (VSIG2)

        There is no specific information about the function of this protein. It is highly expressed in stomach, colon, prostate, trachea and thyroid glands

      • Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGFD)

        Growth factor active in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration and also has effects on the permeability of bl...