• Proseek Multiplex CVD III

    Towards a better understanding of cardiovascular disease and personalized medicine

    The CVD III panel is a high-throughput, multiplex immunoassay enabling analysis of 92 CVD-related protein biomarkers across 96 samples simultaneously. This high level of multiplexing is achieved without any compromise on data quality, thanks to our proprietary Proximity Extension Assay (PEA) technology. 

    This panel contains known human cardiovascular and inflammatory markers as well as some exploratory human proteins with great potential as new CVD markers, which were carefully selected in collaboration with leading experts in the field. Each analyte in the panel has been assessed in terms of sample material, specificity, precision, sensitivity, dynamic range, matrix effects and interference. The assays on this panel have been selected to focus on high-abundance proteins, and 1 µL of a 1:100 dilution of sample is used to measure the 92 biomarkers.

    Please Note: the CVD III panel uses a 1:100 dilution of sample, whereas our technical validation assays are performed in vitro using recombinant analytes . Technical validation data reported on the biomarker pages below, and in the data validation document for this panel  are based on these in vitro assays. A multiplication factor of 100 should therefore be taken into consideration when comparing the addressable biological concentration to the in vitro validation data. (Download the sample dilution guideline document for this panel here)

    An overview of how the 92 biomarker assays in the panel are classified according to Biological Process, Disease Area, Tissue Expression and Protein Class (based on widely used public-access bioinformatic databases, including Uniprot, Human Protein Atlas, Gene Ontology (GO) and DisGeNET) can be seen in the charts below. These charts are interactive: click on a chart-bar or pie-segment to see the list of biomarkers in that classification. Each item in the list links to the detailed biomarker page with validation data.

    Biological Process

    Disease Area

    Tissue Expression

    Protein Class

    Note: Studies can be complemented with 92 additional established and exploratory CVD biomarkers using Proseek Multiplex CVD II. In this panel, assays are focused on low-abundance proteins.


    Overview: Dynamic ranges of the two CVD panels.

    A comprehensive list of all protein biomarkers that can be measured using the currently available Proseek Multiplex panels can be seen on the biomarker library page.

    Note: A printable list of the biomarker assays available in this panel, as well as a full data validation document, can be downloaded from our Document download center >>

    If you prefer not to run the assay yourself, let our experts here at Olink do this for you via our Proseek Multiplex Analysis Service.

    The biomarker pages linked to below include calibrator curves that show the performance of each assay with the estimated sensitivity and dynamic range parameters indicated. These curves are generated during the assay validation process using recombinant antigens, with data presented as Normalized Protein eXpression (NPX) values plotted against protein concentration (in pg/mL). Please note that when analyzing biological samples the data generated will be given in the form of relative quantification (NPX values) and cannot be converted to absolute protein concentrations. For more info about NPX measurements, please view the FAQ.

  • Search all our biomarkers

      Biomarkers in Proseek Multiplex CVD III

      • Aminopeptidase N (AP-N)

        AP-N is a broad specificity aminopeptidase. It may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease, and may be involved in the metabolism of regulatory...

      • Azurocidin (AZU1

        Azurocidin has a chemotactic and antibacterial activity and is also an important inflammatory mediator. It is a member of the serine protease gene family but it is not a serine ...

      • Bleomycin hydrolase (BLM hydrolase)

        The normal physiological role of BLM hydrolase is unknown, but it catalyzes the inactivation of the antitumor drug BLM (a glycopeptide) by hydrolyzing the carboxamide bond of it...

      • C-C motif chemokine 15 (CCL15)

        C-C motif chemokine 15 is a chemotactic factor attracting leukocytes

      • C-C motif chemokine 16 (CCL16)

        CCL16 is a chemokine that is expressed by the?liver,?thymus, and?spleen?and is chemoattractive for?monocytes?and?lymphocytes, but not neutrophils. Cellular expression of this pr...

      • C-C motif chemokine 22 (CCL22)

        The?CCL22 protein is secreted by dendritic cells and?macrophages, and elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with cell surface?chemokine receptors?such as?CCR4. ...

      • C-C motif chemokine 24 (CCL24)

        CCL24 is a small?cytokine?that interacts with?chemokine receptor?CCR3?to induce?chemotaxis?in?eosinophils. This chemokine is also strongly chemotactic for resting T?lymphocytes?...

      • C-X-C motif chemokine 16 (CXCL16)

        C-X-C motif chemokine 16 acts as a scavenger receptor on macrophages, which specifically binds to OxLDL (oxidized low density lipoprotein), suggesting that it may be involved in...

      • Cadherin-5 (CDH5)

        Cadherin-5 is a calcium-dependent cell adhesion protein. It may play an important role in enothelial cell biology through control and organization of intercellular junctions.

      • Carboxypeptidase A1 (CPA1)

        Carboxypeptidase A1 is an enzyme involved in zymogen inhibition.

      • Carboxypeptidase B (CPB1)

        Carboxypeptidase B is an enzyme involved in metabolizing the C5a protein into C5a des-Arg.

      • Caspase-3 (CASP-3)

        Caspase-3 is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease family and interacts with Caspase-8 and Caspase-9. CASP-3 plays an important role in cell apoptosis and is involved ...

      • Cathepsin D (CTSD)

        Cathepsin D is an acid protease active in intracellular protein breakdown and nvolved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer diseas...

      • Cathepsin Z (CTSZ)

        Cathepsin Z is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase and member of the peptidase C1 family that exhibits both carboxy-monopeptidase and carboxy-dipeptidase activities, representing a ...

      • CD166 antigen (ALCAM)

        CD166 antigen is a cell adhesion molecule that binds to CD6. It is expressed on activated T cells, activated monocytes, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, neurons, melanoma cells, a...

      • Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1)

        CHI3LI (also known as YKL-40) is a secreted glycoprotein related to the chitinases, but lacking chitin hydrolysis activity. It is able to promote angiogenesis through VEGF-depen...

      • Chitotriosidase-1 (CHIT1)

        Chitotriosidase is secreted by macrophages and involved in chitin catabolic processes and immune response.

      • Collagen alpha-1(I) chain (COL1A1)

        Collagen alpha-1(I) chain is the major component of fibrillar collagen found in most connective tissues including cartilage.

      • Complement component C1q receptor (CD93)

        Complement component C1q receptor is a transmembrane receptor once thought to be a receptor for C1q, but is now thought to play a role in cell adhesion and phagocytosis in monoc...

      • Contactin-1 (CNTN1)

        Contactin-1 is a?glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored?neuronal?membrane protein?that functions as a?cell adhesion?molecule. It may play a role in the formation of?axon?connecti...

      • Cystatin-B (CSTB)

        Cystatin B, also known as Stefin B or liver thiol proteinase inhibitor, is a member of family 1 of the cystatin superfamily. Cystatin B is an intracellular thiol proteinase inhi...

      • E-selectin (SELE)

        E-selectin, also known as CD62 antigen-like family member E (CD62E), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), or leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 2 (LECAM...

      • Elafin (PI3)

        Elafin is an?elastase-specific?protease inhibitor, which may prevent elastase-mediated tissue proteolysis. This protein might be a potential biomarker for graft versus host dise...

      • Ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EPHB4)

        This protein is a receptor tyrosine kinase which binds promiscuously transmembrane ephrin-B family ligands residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional...

      • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR )

        Epidermal growth factor receptor is a cell-surface receptor and is activated by binding of eg epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha. Binding of the protei...

      • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM)

        Epithelial cell adhesion molecule is a?transmembrane?glycoprotein?mediating cell-cell adhesion?in?epithelia and plays a role in embryonic stem cells proliferation and differenti...

      • Fatty acid-binding protein, adipocyte (FABP4)

        Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) also called aP2 (adipocyte Protein 2) is a carrier protein for fatty acids that is primarily expressed in adipocytes and macrophages. Blocki...

      • Galectin-3 (Gal-3)

        Galectin-3 is a ?-galactoside-binding protein expressed by a number of cell types, including neutrophils and macrophages. In the heart, levels are almost undetectable in cardiom...

      • Galectin-4 (Gal-4)

        Gal-4 and other galetctins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Gal-4 is an S-type lectin that is s...

      • Granulins (GRN)

        Granulins are a family of secreted,?glycosylated?peptides. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and?prostate cancer?(PC) cell-derived growth fa...

      • Growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15)

        Growth differentiation factor-15 is a member of the transforming growth factor superfamily that is produced by cardiomyocytes, activated macrophages, endothelial cells, vascular...

      • Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1)

        Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 regulates insulin-like growth factors and may promote cell migration.

      • Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2)

        Insulin-like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 2 inhibits IGF-mediated growth and developmental rates.

      • Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7)

        Insulin-like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 7 regulates insulin-like growth factors in tissue and may be stimulate cell adhesion.

      • Integrin beta-2 (ITGB2)

        The ITGB2 protein is the integrin beta chain beta 2. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. A given chain may combine with mul...

      • Intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM-2)

        The ICAM-2 protein is a type I transmembrane glycoproteins. ICAM-2 plays a major role in?spermatogenesis and may also play a role in lymphocyte recirculation by blocking cell ad...

      • Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1RT1)

        IL-1RT1 is a receptor for IL1A, IL1B and IL1RN. After binding to interleukin-1 associates with the corecptor IL1RAP to form the high affinity interleukin-1 receptor complex whic...

      • Interleukin-1 receptor type 2 (IL-1RT2)

        This protein binds interleukin alpha (IL1A), interleukin beta (IL1B), and interleukin 1 receptor, type I(IL1R1/IL1RA) (preferentially binds IL1B), and acts as a decoy receptor t...

      • Interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA)

        IL-17RA is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted by activated T-lymphocytes. The protein is a ubiquitous type I membrane glycoprotein that binds with low affinity to interleukin 1...

      • Interleukin-18-binding protein (IL-18BP)

        Interleukin-18-binding protein prevents the binding of IL18 to its receptor, inhibiting IL18-induced IFN-gamma production. This protein is expressed and secreted in mononuclear...

      • Interleukin-2 receptor subunit alpha (IL2-RA)

        Interleukin 2?receptor subunit alpha (IL2RA), beta (IL2RB) and gamma (IL2RG), constitute the high-affinity IL2 receptor. Homodimeric alpha chains (IL2RA) is a low-affinity recep...

      • Interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha (IL-6RA)

        Interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha is part of the receptor for interleukin 6. ?Signal activation necessitate an association with IL6ST. Activation may lead to the regulation o...

      • Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A)

        The JAM-A protein is an important regulator of tight junction assembly in epithelia. The protein can act as a receptor for reovirus, ligand for the integrin LFA1 involved in leu...

      • Kallikrein-6 (KLK6 )

        Kallikrein-6 is a serine protease that shows activity against amyloid precursor protein, myelin basic protein, gelatin, casein and extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronec...

      • Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor)

        The LDL receptor is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich LDL. It is a cell-surfa...

      • Lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTBR)

        The LTBR protein is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It is expressed on the surface of most cell types, including cells of epithelial and myeloid line...

      • Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE)

        Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein promotes renal phosphate excretion and modulates mineralization.

      • Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)

        MMP-2 is an ubiquitinous metalloproteinase that is involved in diverse functions, such as remodeling of the vasculature, angiogenesis, tissue repair, tumor invasion, reproductio...

      • Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3)

        MMP-3, or stromelysin, is an extracellular matrix-degrading proteinase that is up-regulated in atherosclerotic lesions and can contribute to subsequent pathological events. It c...

      • Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)

        Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is an enzyme involved in degradation of extracellular matrix in both normal physiological and disease conditions. MMP9 plays an important function wit...

      • Metalloproteinase inhibitor 4 (TIMP4)

        The gene encoding Metalloproteinase inhibitor 4 belongs to the?tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases?gene family which are inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases, a group ...

      • Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1)

        MCP-1 (CCL2) is a chemokine secreted by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and it is also anchored to the cell membrane of endothelial cells and activated cleavage by M...

      • Myeloblastin (PRTN3)

        Myeloblastin is a protease degrading elastin, fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin and collagen types I, III and IV. The enzyme is present in polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules.

      • Myeloperoxidase (MPO)

        Myeloperoxidase is a leukocyte-derived enzyme that catalyzes the formation of reactive oxidants and may promote plaque formation and rupture.

      • Myoglobin (MB)

        Myoglobin is a sensitive marker for muscle injury, making it a potential marker for heart attack in patients with chest pain. Myoglobin is released from damaged muscle tissue (r...

      • N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)

        The N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), also commonly abbreviated BNPT, is a 76 amino acid N-terminal inactive protein that is cleaved from proBN...

      • Neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 3 (Notch 3)

        Functions as a receptor for membrane-bound ligands Jagged1, Jagged2 and Delta1 to regulate cell-fate determination. Mutations in the NOTCH3 gene have been identified as the und...

      • Osteopontin (OPN)

        Osteopontin interacts with multiple cell surface receptors that are ubiquitously expressed and is therefore an active player in many physiological and pathological processes inc...

      • Osteoprotegerin (OPG)

        OPG is a decoy receptor of cytokines TNFSF11 (RANKL) and possibly TNFSF10 (TRAIL) and belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily. OPG is up-regulated by estrogens and increasing ca...

      • P-selectin (SELP)

        P-selectin functions as a?cell adhesion molecule on the surfaces of activated?endothelial?cells, which line the inner surface of blood vessels, and activated?platelets. P-select...

      • Paraoxonase (PON3)

        Paraoxonase 3 is secreted into the bloodstream and associates with HDL. It may also slow down the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis by hydrolyze lactones.

      • Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1)

        Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 is important in the innate immune respone. It may kill Gram-positive bacteria interfering with peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

      • Perlecan (PLC)

        Perlecan is a large multidomain (five domains, labeled I-V) proteoglycan that binds to and cross-links many extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface molecules to h...

      • Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI)

        Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 is a serine protease inhibitor acting on the activators of plasminogen and hence fibrinolysis.

      • Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)

        PECAM-1 or CD-31, is normally found on endothelial cells, platelets, macrophages and Kupffer cells, granulocytes, T / NK cells, lymphocytes, megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, neutrop...

      • Platelet-derived growth factor subunit A (PDGF subunit A)

        Platelet-derived growth factor subunit A play an essential role in regulating cell proliferation, cell migration, embryonic development, chemotaxis and survival. Signaling is mo...

      • Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)

        Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 is a significant enzyme acting in regulating cholesterol homeostatis.

      • Protein delta homolog 1 (DLK-1)

        DLK-1 may have a role in neuroendocrine differentiation. The soluble form cleaved off by ADAM17 is active in inhibiting adipogenesis, the differentiation of pre-adipocytes into ...

      • Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein D (PSP-D)

        Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein D is involved in the lung's defense against inhaled compounds and interacts with eg bacterial lipopolysaccharides, oligosaccharides and ...

      • Resistin (RETN)

        Resistin (an adipokine) also known as adipose tissue-specific secretory factor (ADSF) or C/EBP-epsilon-regulated myeloid-specific secreted cysteine-rich protein (XCP1) is a cyst...

      • Retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 (RARRES2)

        Retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 is an adipokine involved in autocrine/paracrine signaling for adipocyte differentiation and stimulation of lipolysis. It may play an i...

      • Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130 (CD163)

        Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130 is a scavenger receptor for the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex and may protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidati...

      • Secretoglobin family 3A member 2 (SCGB3A2)

        Secretoglobin family 3A member 2 is regulating lung surfactant proteins and thyroid specific gene expression.

      • Spondin-1 (SPON1)

        Spondin-1, or F-spondin, is a major factor for vascular smooth muscle cell. ?Spondin-1 is reported to inhibit differentiation or migration during angiogenesis (affecting endoth...

      • ST2 protein (ST2)

        ST2 is an interleukin-1 receptor family member that is expressed as a transmembrane (ST2L) and soluble isoform (sST2). Plasma levels of sST2 are elevated in inflammatory disease...

      • Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5 (TR-AP)

        Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5 is a glycosylated metalloprotein enzyme expressed by osteoclasts, neurons and activated macrophages. It is associated with reduced ost...

      • Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI)

        Tissue factor pathway inhibitor interacts with Factor X, associates with lipoproteins in plasma and possesses an antithrombotic action.

      • Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA)

        Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated tPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots. Unusually high levels of tPA activity can result in excessive bleed...

      • Transferrin receptor protein 1 (TR)

        Transferrin receptor protein 1 is a carrier protein needed for import of iron into the cell and regulates the response to iron concentration, maintaining iron homeostasis.

      • Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3)

        The TFF3 protein is a member of the trefoil family. They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. Their functions are not defined, but they may protec...

      • Trem-like transcript 2 protein (TLT-2)

        Cell surface receptor that may play a role in the innate and adaptive immune response. Acts as a counter-receptor for CD276 and interaction with CD276 on T-cells enhances T-cell...

      • Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13B (TNFSF13B)

        TNFSF13B is a cytokine that belongs to the TNF ligand family and is the natural ligand for three unusual TNF receptors, all of which have different affinities for it.These ligan...

      • Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1)

        Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A is a member of the Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which also contains TNFRSF1B. This protein is one of the maj...

      • Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNF-R2)

        Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B is a member of the Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which also contains TNFRSF1A. This protein and TNF-receptor 1...

      • Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10C (TNFRSF10C)

        Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10C may protect cells againts TRAIL mediated apoptosis.

      • Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14 (TNFRSF14)

        TNFRSF14 is a receptor for BTLA, TNFSF14/LIGHT and homotrimeric TNFSF1/lymphotoxin-alpha. TNFRSF14 plays an important role in HSV pathogenesis because it enhanced the entry of ...

      • Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (FAS )

        Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (FAS), also known as apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1 or APT), cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95) is a death receptor on the surf...

      • Tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL)

        Tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO is an oncogene involved in cell proliferation, cell survival, differentiation and migration.

      • Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type substrate 1 (SHPS-1)

        SHPS-1 is an immunoglobulin-like cell surface receptor for CD47. The CD47 binding prevents maturation of immature dendritic cells and inhibits cytokine production by mature dend...

      • Urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (U-PAR)

        Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a highly sensitive marker that reflects increased inflammation and is positively correlated with pro-inflammatory bio...

      • Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)

        uPA is a serine protease that activates plasminogen to give the serine protease plasmin. This activation leads to a proteolysis cascade that ultimately is important for the degr...

      • von Willebrand factor (vWF)

        von Willebrand factor is a blood glycoprotein important for blood coagulation. vWF promotes adhesion of platelets to site of injury and is particularly important in binding fact...