• Proseek Multiplex Immune Response

    Casting a broader net to further explore the complexity of the human proteome

    Complementing and expanding on our previous portfolio of disease area-focused biomarker panels, our exploratory series offers scientists the chance to cast a wider net in the quest to identify new biomarkers and relevant protein signatures, offering many new assays focused on important biological processes with wide-ranging clinical relevance.

    The Immune Response panel offers simultaneous analysis of 92 protein biomarkers using just 1 µL of biological sample, and all assays are subject to Olink’s strict technical validation and QC control procedures. The selection of protein biomarker assays is designed to provide the optimal dynamic range, as well as to focus on proteins with relevance for immune response processes. Categorization of the proteins included in the panel was carried out via referral to widely used public-access bioinformatic databases, including Uniprot, Human Protein Atlas, Gene Ontology (GO) and DisGeNET. The assays in this panel include proteins involved in key biological processes such as adaptive immune response, defense response to virus, lymphocyte activation, inflammatory response and cytokine-mediated signaling pathways.

    An alphabetical list of the 92 proteins with links to the individual biomarker pages containing additional information and assay validation data can be found at the bottom of this page.

    An overview of how the 92 biomarker assays in the panel are classified according to Biological Process, Disease Area, Tissue Expression and Protein Class can be seen in the charts below. These charts are interactive: click on a chart-bar or pie-segment to see the list of biomarkers in that classification. Each item in the list links to the detailed biomarker page with validation data.

    Biological Process

    Disease Area

    Tissue Expression

    Protein Class

    A comprehensive list of all protein biomarkers that can be measured using the currently available biomarker panels can be seen on the biomarker library page.

    Note: A printable list of the biomarker assays available in this panel, as well as a full data validation document, can be downloaded from our Document download center >>

    If you prefer not to run the assay yourself, let our experts here at Olink do this for you via our Analysis Service.

    The biomarker pages linked to below include calibrator curves that show the performance of each assay with the estimated sensitivity and dynamic range parameters indicated. These curves are generated during the assay validation process using recombinant antigens, with data presented as Normalized Protein eXpression (NPX) values plotted against protein concentration (in pg/mL). Please note that when analyzing biological samples the data generated will be given in the form of relative quantification (NPX values) and cannot be converted to absolute protein concentrations. For more info about NPX measurements, please view the FAQ.

  • Search all our biomarkers

      Biomarkers in Proseek Multiplex Immune Response

      • Allergin-1 (MILR1)

        Immunoglobulin-like receptor which plays an inhibitory role in degranulation of mast cells. Negatively regulates IgE-mediated mast cell activation and suppresses the type I imme...

      • Amphiregulin (AREG)

        Ligand of the EGF receptor/EGFR. Autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for a broad range of target cells including astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts.

      • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)

        Required for activity of the Ah (dioxin) receptor. This protein is required for the ligand-binding subunit to translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus after ligand binding. T...

      • Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 2 (BIRC2)

        Multi-functional protein which regulates not only caspases and apoptosis, but also modulates inflammatory signaling and immunity, mitogenic kinase signaling, and cell proliferat...

      • Beta-galactosidase (GLB1)

        Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans. Isoform 2 has no beta-galactosidase catalytic activity, but plays func...

      • Butyrophilin subfamily 3 member A2 (BTN3A2)

        Plays a role in T-cell responses in the adaptive immune response. Inhibits the release of IFNG from activated T-cells.

      • C-type lectin domain family 4 member A (CLEC4A)

        May be involved in regulating immune reactivity. May play a role in modulating dendritic cells (DC) differentiation and/or maturation. May be involved via its ITIM motif (immuno...

      • C-type lectin domain family 4 member C (CLEC4C)

        Involved in antigen-capturing. Target ligand into antigen processing and peptide-loading compartments for presentation to T-cells. May mediate potent inhibition of induction of ...

      • C-type lectin domain family 4 member D (CLEC4D)

        Functions as an endocytic receptor. May be involved in antigen uptake at the site of infection, either for clearance of the antigen, or for processing and further presentation t...

      • C-type lectin domain family 4 member G (CLEC4G)

        Binds mannose, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and fucose, but not galactose, in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, in vitro. (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for Japanese encephal...

      • C-type lectin domain family 6 member A (CLEC6A)

        Binds high-mannose carbohydrates in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Functional receptor for alpha-mannans on C.albicans hypheas. Plays an important role in the host defense against C...

      • C-type lectin domain family 7 member A (CLEC7A)

        Lectin that functions as pattern receptor specific for beta-1,3-linked and beta-1,6-linked glucans, such as cell wall constituents from pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Necessary ...

      • CD83 antigen (CD83)

        May play a significant role in antigen presentation or the cellular interactions that follow lymphocyte activation.

      • Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2)

        May play a role in the formation of functional distinct domains critical for saltatory conduction of nerve impulses in myelinated nerve fibers. Seems to demarcate the juxtaparan...

      • Corneodesmosin (CDSN)

        Important for the epidermal barrier integrity.

      • Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1 (HSD11B1)

        Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol. In i...

      • Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR)

        Component of the epithelial apical junction complex that may function as a homophilic cell adhesion molecule and is essential for tight junction integrity. Also involved in tran...

      • Cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4)

        High-affinity epithelial cell surface receptor for APF. Mediates the anchoring of the endoplasmic reticulum to microtubules.

      • Diacylglycerol kinase zeta (DGKZ)

        Displays a strong preference for 1,2-diacylglycerols over 1,3-diacylglycerols, but lacks substrate specificity among molecular species of long chain diacylglycerols. Isoform 2 b...

      • Discoidin, CUB and LCCL domain-containing protein 2 (DCBLD2)

        No functional description currently available for this protein.

      • DNA fragmentation factor subunit alpha (DFFA)

        Inhibitor of the caspase-activated DNase (DFF40).

      • Dual adapter for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositide (DAPP1)

        May act as a B-cell-associated adapter that regulates B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-signaling downstream of PI3K.

      • Dynactin subunit 1 (DCTN1)

        Required for the cytoplasmic dynein-driven retrograde movement of vesicles and organelles along microtubules. Dynein-dynactin interaction is a key component of the mechanism of ...

      • E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM21 (TRIM21)

        E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase whose activity is dependent on E2 enzymes, UBE2D1, UBE2D2, UBE2E1 and UBE2E2. Forms a ubiquitin ligase complex in cooperation with the E2 UBE2D2 that...

      • Egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1)

        Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxyl...

      • Eotaxin (CCL11)

        In response to the presence of allergens, this protein directly promotes the accumulation of eosinophils, a prominent feature of allergic inflammatory reactions. Binds to CCR3.

      • Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 1 (EIF4G1)

        Component of the protein complex eIF4F, which is involved in the recognition of the mRNA cap, ATP-dependent unwinding of 5'-terminal secondary structure and recruitment of mRNA ...

      • Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (EIF5A)

        mRNA-binding protein involved in translation elongation. Has an important function at the level of mRNA turnover, probably acting downstream of decapping. Involved in actin dyna...

      • Fc receptor-like protein 3 (FCRL3)

        Fc receptor-like protein 3 is a protein encoded by the FCRL3 gene

      • Fc receptor-like protein 6 (FCRL6)

        Fc receptor-like protein 6 is a protein encoded by the FCRL6 gene.

      • Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)

        Plays an important role in the regulation of cell survival, cell division, angiogenesis, cell differentiation and cell migration. Functions as potent mitogen in vitro. Can induc...

      • FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 5 (FXYD5)

        Involved in down-regulation of E-cadherin which results in reduced cell adhesion. Promotes metastasis.

      • Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein (HCLS1)

        Substrate of the antigen receptor-coupled tyrosine kinase. Plays a role in antigen receptor signaling for both clonal expansion and deletion in lymphoid cells. May also be invol...

      • Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT)

        Inactivates histamine by N-methylation. Plays an important role in degrading histamine and in regulating the airway response to histamine.

      • Importin subunit alpha-5 (KPNA1)

        Functions in nuclear protein import as an adapter protein for nuclear receptor KPNB1. Binds specifically and directly to substrates containing either a simple or bipartite NLS m...

      • Inactive dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPP10)

        Promotes cell surface expression of the potassium channel KCND2 (PubMed:15454437). Modulates the activity and gating characteristics of the potassium channel KCND2 (PubMed:15454...

      • Integral membrane protein 2A (ITM2A)

        Integral membrane protein 2A is a protein encoded by the ITM2A gene.

      • Integrin alpha-11 (ITGA11)

        Integrin alpha-11/beta-1 is a receptor for collagen.

      • Integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6)

        Integrin alpha-6/beta-1 is a receptor for laminin on platelets. Integrin alpha-6/beta-4 is a receptor for laminin in epithelial cells and it plays a critical structural role in ...

      • Integrin beta-6 (ITGB6)

        Integrin alpha-V/beta-6 is a receptor for fibronectin and cytotactin. It recognizes the sequence R-G-D in its ligands. Internalisation of integrin alpha-V/beta-6 via clathrin-me...

      • Interferon lambda receptor 1 (IFNLR1)

        The IFNLR1/IL10RB dimer is a receptor for the cytokine ligands IFNL2 and IFNL3 and mediates their antiviral activity. The ligand/receptor complex stimulate the activation of the...

      • Interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9)

        Transcription factor that mediates signaling by type I IFNs (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta). Following type I IFN binding to cell surface receptors, Jak kinases (TYK2 and JAK1) are act...

      • Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1)

        Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate immune response against foreign pathogens. Involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and IL-1R signali...

      • Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4)

        Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate immune response against foreign pathogens. Involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and IL-1R signali...

      • Interleukin-10 (IL10)

        Inhibits the synthesis of a number of cytokines, including IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF and GM-CSF produced by activated macrophages and by helper T-cells.

      • Interleukin-12 receptor subunit beta-1 (IL12RB1)

        Functions as an interleukin receptor which binds interleukin-12 with low affinity and is involved in IL12 transduction. Associated with IL12RB2 it forms a functional, high affin...

      • Interleukin-5 (IL5)

        Factor that induces terminal differentiation of late-developing B-cells to immunoglobulin secreting cells.

      • Interleukin-6 (IL6)

        Cytokine with a wide variety of biological functions. It is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. Plays an essential role in the final differentiation of B-cells into Ig...

      • Islet cell autoantigen 1 (ICA1)

        May play a role in neurotransmitter secretion.

      • Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 19 (KRT19)

        Involved in the organization of myofibers. Together with KRT8, helps to link the contractile apparatus to dystrophin at the costameres of striated muscle.

      • Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 4 (LILRB4)

        Receptor for class I MHC antigens. Recognizes a broad spectrum of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and HLA-G alleles. Involved in the down-regulation of the immune response and the developme...

      • Lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3)

        Involved in lymphocyte activation. Binds to HLA class-II antigens.

      • Lymphocyte antigen 75 (LY75)

        Acts as an endocytic receptor to direct captured antigens from the extracellular space to a specialized antigen-processing compartment (By similarity). Causes reduced proliferat...

      • Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3)

        May play a role in dendritic cell function and in adaptive immunity.

      • Mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 (MASP1)

        Functions in the lectin pathway of complement, which performs a key role in innate immunity by recognizing pathogens through patterns of sugar moieties and neutralizing them. Th...

      • Merlin (NF2)

        Probable regulator of the Hippo/SWH (Sav/Wts/Hpo) signaling pathway, a signaling pathway that plays a pivotal role in tumor suppression by restricting proliferation and promotin...

      • Methylated-DNA--protein-cysteine methyltransferase (MGMT)

        Involved in the cellular defense against the biological effects of O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) in DNA. Repairs alkylated guanine in DNA by stoichiometrically transferring the alky...

      • Natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1 (NCR1)

        Cytotoxicity-activating receptor that may contribute to the increased efficiency of activated natural killer (NK) cells to mediate tumor cell lysis.

      • Natural killer cells antigen CD94 (KLRD1)

        Plays a role as a receptor for the recognition of MHC class I HLA-E molecules by NK cells and some cytotoxic T-cells.

      • Neurabin-2 (PPP1R9B)

        Seems to act as a scaffold protein in multiple signaling pathways. Modulates excitatory synaptic transmission and dendritic spine morphology. Binds to actin filaments (F-actin) ...

      • Neurotrophin-4 (NTF4)

        Target-derived survival factor for peripheral sensory sympathetic neurons.

      • Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 3 (NFATC3)

        Acts as a regulator of transcriptional activation. Plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T-cells, especially in the induction of the IL-2.

      • Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor (PTH1R)

        Receptor for parathyroid hormone and for parathyroid hormone-related peptide. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and also a ...

      • PC4 and SFRS1-interacting protein (PSIP1)

        Transcriptional coactivator involved in neuroepithelial stem cell differentiation and neurogenesis. Involved in particular in lens epithelial cell gene regulation and stress res...

      • Peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX1)

        Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Reduces peroxides with reducing equivalents provided through the thioredoxin system but not from glutaredoxin. May play an important ro...

      • Peroxiredoxin-5, mitochondrial (PRDX5)

        Reduces hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides with reducing equivalents provided through the thioredoxin system. Involved in intracellular redox signaling.

      • Phosphoinositide 3-kinase adapter protein 1 (PIK3AP1)

        Signaling adapter that contributes to B-cell development by linking B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway. Has a compleme...

      • Plexin-A4 (PLXNA4)

        Coreceptor for SEMA3A. Necessary for signaling by class 3 semaphorins and subsequent remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Plays a role in axon guidance in the developing nervous syst...

      • Polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3)

        Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein rece...

      • Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX58 (DDX58)

        Innate immune receptor which acts as a cytoplasmic sensor of viral nucleic acids and plays a major role in sensing viral infection and in the activation of a cascade of antivira...

      • Protein FAM3B (FAM3B)

        Induces apoptosis of alpha and beta cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

      • Protein HEXIM1 (HEXIM1)

        Transcriptional regulator which functions as a general RNA polymerase II transcription inhibitor. In cooperation with 7SK snRNA sequesters P-TEFb in a large inactive 7SK snRNP c...

      • Protein kinase C theta type (PRKCQ)

        Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that mediates non-redundant functions in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling, i...

      • Protein sprouty homolog 2 (SPRY2)

        May function as an antagonist of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways and may negatively modulate respiratory organogenesis.

      • Protein-arginine deiminase type-2 (PADI2)

        Catalyzes the deimination of arginine residues of proteins.

      • SH2 domain-containing protein 1A (SH2D1A)

        Cytoplasmic adapter regulating receptors of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family such as SLAMF1, CD244, LY9, CD84, SLAMF6 and SLAMF7. In SLAM signaling se...

      • SH2B adapter protein 3 (SH2B3)

        Links T-cell receptor activation signal to phospholipase C-gamma-1, GRB2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

      • Signaling threshold-regulating transmembrane adapter 1 (SIT1)

        Negatively regulates TCR (T-cell antigen receptor)-mediated signaling in T-cells. Involved in positive selection of T-cells.

      • SRSF protein kinase 2 (SRPK2)

        Serine/arginine-rich protein-specific kinase which specifically phosphorylates its substrates at serine residues located in regions rich in arginine/serine dipeptides, known as ...

      • Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1)

        Stimulates renal phosphate reabsorption, and could therefore prevent hypercalcemia.

      • Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (CXCL12)

        Chemoattractant active on T-lymphocytes, monocytes, but not neutrophils. Activates the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR4 to induce a rapid and transient rise in the level of intrac...

      • T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 (CD28)

        Involved in T-cell activation, the induction of cell proliferation and cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival. Enhances the production of IL4 and IL10 in T-cells i...

      • Thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase, mitochondrial (PRDX3)

        Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Protects radical-sensitive enzymes from oxidative damage by a radical-generating system. Acts synergistically with MAP3K13 to regulate ...

      • TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2)

        Regulates activation of NF-kappa-B and JNK and plays a central role in the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis. Required for normal antibody isotype switching from IgM to ...

      • TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa-B activator (TANK)

        Adapter protein involved in I-kappa-B-kinase (IKK) regulation which constitutively binds TBK1 and IKBKE playing a role in antiviral innate immunity. Acts as a regulator of TRAF ...

      • Transcription factor AP-1 (JUN)

        Transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the enhancer heptamer motif 5'-TGA[CG]TCA-3'. Promotes activity of NR5A1 when phosphorylated by HIPK3 leading to increased ster...

      • Transcription regulator protein BACH1 (BACH1)

        Transcriptional regulator that acts as repressor or activator. Binds, in vitro, to NF-E2 binding sites. Play important roles in coordinating transcription activation and repress...

      • Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1)

        Stimulates neutrophil and monocyte-mediated inflammatory responses. Triggers release of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, as well as increased surface expression of cel...

      • Tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5)

        Capsid-specific restriction factor that prevents infection from non-host-adapted retroviruses. Blocks viral replication early in the life cycle, after viral entry but before rev...

      • Tryptase alpha/beta-1 (TPSAB1)

        Tryptase is the major neutral protease present in mast cells and is secreted upon the coupled activation-degranulation response of this cell type. May play a role in innate immu...

      • Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member EDAR (EDAR)

        Receptor for EDA isoform A1, but not for EDA isoform A2. Mediates the activation of NF-kappa-B and JNK. May promote caspase-independent cell death.

      • Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16 (ZBTB16)

        Probable transcription factor. May play a role in myeloid maturation and in the development and/or maintenance of other differentiated tissues. Probable substrate-recognition co...